The Official Site of Arka Language
STUDY: Lein's Lesson, Overview and so on

Contents Menu




Lunar alphabet

Word Order














We learned about the tense and the aspects of Arka last time.
Do you remember, Shion?

You have to attach "-at" to a verb to make a past tense. Likewise, "-or" for the progressive form, and "-ik" for the perfect form.
"To write" is "axt," so "axtat" means "wrote," while "axtor" means "be writing" and "axtik" means "have written."
You have to use "be" or "have" when you want to make a progressive or perfect form in English, but you only have to attach a suffix to make them in Arka.
How do you express the future? You know, like "will write."

You have to put an adverb, "sil," after a verb.
"Axt sil" means "will write." Unlike "-at," "sil" isn't a suffix, so don't make it "axtsil." It's "axt sil."

"Axtat" (wrote) is shorter than "axt sil" (will write).
"Axt sil" is longer. Why is "axtat" so short?

Good question! It is because the past tense occurs more frequently.
The past tense, the progressive form and the perfect form we've learnt are shorter because they ocuur frequently. The tenses that don't occur frequently are expressed with an adverb like "sil."
There are other adverbs in Arka. Here's a chart of the frequent adverbs.

lax want to do hope
van will will
sen can possibility
vil cannot impossibility
das why don't you offering
fal have to obligation
flen may permission
xiit let's suggestion
yu be done passive voice

The adverbs of Arka seem useful. In English, most of them are an auxiliary verb.
It is very useful that you can mean "want to" only with "lax" or "why don't you" only with "das."
By the way, I'm surprised to hear that they are an adverb. I mean, ordinary adverbs are like "strongly" or "highly."

"Strong" is "vien" and "strongly" is "vienel." You only have to attach "-el" to an adjective to make an adverb.
Arka has two kinds of adverbs; auxiliary-verb-like ones and adjectives followed by "-el."
Attach "-l" to an adjective which ends up with a vowel instead of "-el." "aalo" means "dexterous," so "dexterously" is "aalol," not "aaloel."
Well, Here's a question. What do you say when you want to mean "Shion can write Arka"?

Maybe "xion axt sen arka"?

Yeah, You're right :)

Hey, I found "passive voice" in the chart. what does it mean?

"yu" makes the passive voice. "xion axt arka" means "Shion writes Arka," an active voice.
To turn this into an passive voice--

1) put "yu" after the verb; xion axt yu arka
2) reverse the subject–object relationship; arka axt yu xion

--That' all.
"arka axt yu xion" means "Arka is written by Shion."

OK, Arka doesn't need "be," and you don't have to remember the past participle of verbs. You only have to add "yu" and reverse the subject–object relationship.
I'm getting to make complicated sentences.
But I'm still not be able to translate "this is an apple."
Miss Yutia, would you please teach me the copula of Arka next time? :)